Optical leveling device that is used to determine the height difference between two or more points to each other or to
A datum is used in surveying or construction. Among the primary devices used
Seeking to align Water Levels (Water Level) Which was used by Iranians. The balance pipe of cane
The middle of a large hole and small hole at each end connected to the rope. Two each end of the rope
Graded on a piece of wood kept the third hole in the middle with a bowl of water reed Myrykhth, if water
Each of the holes in both ends of the inequality fell, the rope which was slightly above the bottom
Comes the same degree water to be drained from both ends . The size difference between the wood and the cord
The height between the two points was.
- Leveling device and its components
- Index (Mir)
It is said to be operational benchmarking to determine the height difference between two points or a point or points will be done .
Height : The vertical distance of a point compared to the level
Levels Compare : Or geoid is the surface of the high seas . The mapping operation is sometimes compared to a surface other than the surface of the ocean surface and consider all points of view with respect to its height level compared to conventional measure . The geoid has Anhnast, but in cases where height is measured over a small surface area compared to the horizontal plane perpendicular to the vertical line at the site considered . For those who are not negative in height to height, is often the basis for selecting the lower level of the lowest point of the area to choose to measure .
Plane : All Nqatsh along its vertical surface that is vertical dots . In a small area in each region can be said to parallel the level surface waters such as lakes and swamps resident . So, anywhere there is more than one level .
Contour line : Each line in the plane is called the contour line . Therefore, there is a point of infinite contour line .
The base level : The average water level of the high seas with the assumption that the drought continues .
Extension of an existing : The vertical line that passes through the center of the earth .
Page horizon : Along the vertical or vertical plane perpendicular to that point.
Three upper, middle and lower composed . قسمت فوقانی شامل تلسکوپ و وسایل قراول روی و قسمت میانی شامل تراز و صفحه مدرج و قسمت تحتانی شامل پیچ های تراز کننده و اتصال و صفحه اتصال دستگاه روی سه پایه است که هر قسمت ضمائمی دارد .
Different parts of leveling characteristics are as follows :
الف/ پایه که به وسیله سه یا چهار پیچ تراز کننده روی صفحه زیر پایه تکیه میکند و روی آن یک تراز قرار دارد و روی هر پایه دایره مدرج افقی برای اندازه گیری زاویه افقی طراحی شده است .
B / camera in the balance (For automatic levels or Kmpansatvr) For horizontal line marks on the . However, this time around the vertical axis, and the position is closed with a screw holder and screws minor move side to side slightly in turns to be on the goal line Reticuli .
C / trumpet is part of the camera angle of view with which it can be made larger to be seen with the eye of round objects . Trumpet in a leveling of the objective lens (A set of multiple lenses stuck together) Page Reticuli and eyepiece, which contains one or more lenses, it is Yshkyl . One special feature is the leveling of magnification objective lens with a focal length of the focal length of the eyepiece defined . Therefore, the larger the aperture of the objective lens magnification is larger devices .
D / cords Reticuli that this could be a sign of a certain point of view on the place of the cords used Reticuli . The trumpet page to page Reticuli (The mesh is) Located on the horizontal and vertical cords for signs carved on . Tar leveling detailed in half horizontally to form the plug that state compliance with morbidity lines (Index) Easier .
AH / or the line of sight of the camera optical axis, an imaginary line to the intersection of the objective lens and eyepiece connecting cords Reticuli centers . This line is called the line Klymasyvn .
And / vertical axis is camera-centric device in a horizontal plane during the leveling Joel .
Align the camera mapping device is used for horizontal and vertical axes a . Usually alignment of a glass container, which is filled inside of ether or alcohol and it remains only an empty bubble has been corrected . Usually balances 2 Kinds : Balance and align spherical or cylindrical tube .
Spherical balance : از یک استوانه شیشه ای تشکیل شده است که قسمت بالای آن از داخل به صورت کروی است و به جز یک حباب دایره ای شکل یا مایع حساس ، که همان اتر یا الکل است ، پر شده و در یک محفظه فلزی جای گرفته است . In these states alignment axis is the line perpendicular to the tangent at the midpoint of the balance, the balance of the approximate spherical surface for horizontal or vertical insert a shaft used .
Align tube or cylindrical : Flush pipes of a glass tube, which on top of its cylindrical shape is curved like a certain radius, composed . Both ends of the pipe is blocked with alcohol and ether, to the extent that there is a bubble in it, filled .
To view the status bubble divisions to periodically flush out pipes (2Mm) Embedded . Divisions mark the midpoint of the middle and along the alignment axis direction of the tangent at this point or line level Hadi said . So to help these balances based on line of sight or Klymasyvn the horizontal or vertical axis of the device to be .
خط کش چوبی است که با تقسیم به سانتیمتر مدرج شده است و برای سهولت خواندن آن سانتیمترها غالباً یک در میان به رنگ قرمز یا سیاه در زمینه سفید رنگ نشان داده شده اند و هر ده سانتیمتر با خط بزرگتر مشخص شده است .
This device is used to determine the difference between two points and the point is to put the vertical mode . For vertical placement of mortality usually spherical flush mounted next to it . Some of them are equipped with a small balance .
It usually also made of wood and its length 2 یا 3 یا 4 M, a width of between 12-7 Cm . Its thickness depends on the type of wood it is made of a few centimeters . For ease of transportation deaths of pliancy with clamp connectors are written in reverse .adad some of the morbidity associated with reverse camera used . In other directly, which is used to place cameras . Consultants mortality numbers for 4 And when benchmarking the tar-digit number that is read on it Reticuli